Short Courses and Conferences

2014 IEEE Conference on Reliability Science for Advanced Materials and Devices

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

September 7 - 9, 2014

2014 RSAMD Conference Speakers

Keynote Speaker

Prof. Wayne Johnson

Tennessee Tech University

Packaging and Assembly Reliability for Harsh Environments

Abstract

While Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder alloys are widely used in consumer electronics, concerns remain about their reliability in harsh environments when long life is required. In part one of this presentation...
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While Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder alloys are widely used in consumer electronics, concerns remain about their reliability in harsh environments when long life is required. In part one of this presentation the effect of aging on the material properties will be reviewed and then reliability data for aged lead-free solder assemblies will be presented. The data show a significant reduction in the reliability of the assemblies that are aged prior to reliability testing.

The exemption for high lead solder remains for assembly of power devices, but is regularly up for review. A AgBiX™ solder paste will be discussed including assembly process development and reliability on direct bond substrates with different surface finishes. This solder paste shows good reliability for die attach applications to 200°C.
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Biography

Wayne Johnson is a Professor and Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Tennessee Tech University. His current research projects include lead-free electronics assembly, advanced packaging...
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Wayne Johnson is a Professor and Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Tennessee Tech University. His current research projects include lead-free electronics assembly, advanced packaging and electronics packaging for extreme environments
(-230°C to +485°C). He has over 25 years experience in electronics packaging research.

Prof. Johnson is a Fellow of the International Microelectronics Packaging Society, a Fellow of the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a member of the Surface Mount Technology Association (SMTA), and the IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries). He is the Vice President for Publications of the IEEE Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Society and Co-Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology. He is also the Co-General Chair of the International High Temperature Electronics Conference.
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IEEE Featured Speaker

William R. Tonti

Director of IEEE Future Directions

IEEE Future Directions

Abstract

Within IEEE Future Directions two areas presently in incubation that have a strong convergence with energy management are "Smart Cities" and the "Internet of Things". The technological, social...
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Within IEEE Future Directions two areas presently in incubation that have a strong convergence with energy management are "Smart Cities" and the "Internet of Things". The technological, social and political decisions we make in these areas will have a pronounced societal effect over the next fifty years. Reliability is an area that is fundamental for the platforms that drive both research and the productization in the marketplace.

The IEEE utilizes a "Futures" event to help focus its lens. The technologies and areas under discussion this year are: Humans, Processing, Energy, Health Care, Fabrication, and Networks. These areas are essential ingredients towards the development of Smart Cities and the Internet of Things.

This talk will discuss some of the cross cutting issues and scenarios one needs to analyze prior to moving into the marketplace.

Some useful web portals that contain current information are:

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Biography

Dr. William Tonti holds a BSEE from Northeastern University, an MSEE and a Ph.D. from the University of Vermont, and an MBA from St. Michael's College. He retired from IBM...
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Dr. William Tonti holds a BSEE from Northeastern University, an MSEE and a Ph.D. from the University of Vermont, and an MBA from St. Michael's College. He retired from IBM in 2009 after 30+ years of service, working as the lead semiconductor technologist for a large part of his career. Dr. Tonti holds in excess of 290 issued patents, and has been recognized as an IBM Master Inventor. He was honored by having his 250th patent issue transcribed into the U.S. Congressional Record. Dr. Tonti is a Fellow of the IEEE, a past IEEE Reliability Society President, a recipient of the IEEE Reliability Engineer of the Year award, and the IEEE 3rd Millennium medal. Dr. Tonti joined IEEE in 2009 as the Director of IEEE Future Directions where he works alongside staff and volunteers to incubate new technologies within the IEEE.
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Lecturers

Dr. Michael H. Azarian

University of Maryland Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

Reliability and Failure Mechanisms in Capacitors

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Abstract

Capacitors are ubiquitous in today's electronic products across a broad spectrum of applications, with a single circuit board frequently containing dozens or even hundreds of these components. As a result, capacitor failures are often the limiting factor in product reliability. This category of components covers a wide range of technologies and materials, from traditional tantalum, film, liquid aluminum, and ceramic capacitors to more recently introduced versions based on conductive polymers or nanotechnology.

This lecture will present an overview of several of the common capacitor types, with an emphasis on the latest designs and materials, including polymer tantalum and aluminum, flexible termination ceramic, embedded, and electrical double layer capacitors. It will provide a summary of research on their failure modes and mechanisms derived from the literature and the presenter's laboratory. It will also cover experimental methods for detection and screening of defects associated with reliability. Finally, it will identify challenges and uncertainties that continue to hinder broader adoption of the newest capacitor technologies.
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Biography

Dr. Michael H. Azarian is a research scientist at the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) at the University of Maryland. He holds a Masters and Ph.D. in Materials Science from Carnegie Mellon University, and a Bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering from Princeton University.

His research on the analysis, detection, prediction, and prevention of failures has led to numerous publications on electronic packaging, component reliability, condition monitoring, and tribology.

He has led several standards committees on reliability for the IEEE, and on counterfeit detection for SAE. He holds 5 U.S. patents. Before joining CALCE, he spent 13 years in the disk drive and fiber optics industries.
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Prof. Reinhold Dauskardt

Stanford University

Thermomechanical Reliability in PV Devices and Structures

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Abstract

The impact of high-volume and cost-effective solar technologies depends critically on their reliability and durability over extended operating lifetimes. Commercialization requires accurate lifetime predictions and product warranties over time periods (> 20 yrs) far in excess of other device technologies. Despite optimistic forecasts for cost-effective solar, uncertain degradation mechanisms, the lack of testing metrologies, poor accelerated testing protocols and science-based kinetic degradation models, and uncertain lifetimes currently present significant barriers for success.

We describe research to identify and characterize the coupled thermo-mechanical and photo-chemical degradation mechanisms that determine the reliability and operational lifetimes for solar technologies. We describe quantitative in-situ characterization techniques to measure the synergistic effect of mechanical stresses, temperature, environmental species and the presence of in-situ simulated solar UV light on inherent termo-mechanical properties including interface debonding kinetics and cohesive failure of layers. Research techniques and results are described for a number of material and interface systems relevant to encapsulation and ultra-barriers, transparent electrodes and optical elements, and flexible and multi-junction solar cells. Implications to optimize materials, develop accelerated test methods and provide the fundamental basis for realistic lifetime predictions are described.
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Biography

Reinhold Dauskardt is the Ruth G. and William K. Bowes Professor and Associate Department Chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University and he has additional appointments in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Biodesign Institute and in the Department of Surgery, Stanford School of Medicine.

His research group has worked extensively on integrating new hybrid materials into emerging device, nanoscience and energy technologies and on the biomechanics of human skin and soft tissues. He is an internationally recognized expert on the thermomechanial reliability of engineering structures and devices technologies for which he was awarded the prestigious Semiconductor Industry Association University Researcher Award in 2010 for "research which has provided substantive and sustained contributions to semiconductor industry science and technology." His research includes studies of the causes and mechanisms of fracture, fatigue and mechanical reliability of renewable energy, microelectronic and biomedical devices and their packages, and similar studies of engineering materials in bulk form that are used in the manufacture of engineering structures. His research group is also well known internationally for pioneering studies of the synergistic effects of mechanical forces, chemical environments, temperature, solar radiation and other forms of degradation on the processes of fracture and defect evolution that determine the reliability of materials and devices. Experimental studies are complimented with a range of computational capabilities.
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Prof. Jesús A. del Alamo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Recent progress in understanding the electrical reliability of GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors

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Abstract

GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) are well on their way to revolutionizing RF, microwave and millimeter-wave communications and radar systems. GaN FETs are also uniquely poised to have a disruptive impact in electrical power management. In all these applications, device reliability remains a significant concern. As the field has expanded, great progress has recently taken place in understanding GaN transistor degradation, especially under high-voltage stress. Detailed electrical studies coupled with comprehensive failure analysis involving a variety of techniques have revealed a rich picture of degradation. Early studies showed that high voltage degradation of GaN HEMTs was characterized by a critical voltage (Vcrit) at which the device gate current abruptly increases. For stress voltage beyond Vcrit, prominent degradation was observed in the drain current and other electrical parameters of the device. More recently, it has been shown that degradation in the gate current can occur for voltages below the critical voltage suggesting that stress time is a key variable in degradation. Cross-section TEM and planar imaging techniques have shown that high-voltage stress induces prominent structural defects such as grooves, pits and cracks in the GaN cap and AlGaN barrier at the edge of the gate. The evolution of these defects correlates well with that of electrical degradation. Recently, a similar pattern of degradation has been observed under high-power DC and RF stress, although not in a consistent way. A significant recent finding is the role that moisture plays in the formation of these structural defects. This suggests a path for mitigation. Separately from device degradation, a significant anomaly affecting GaN transistors is electron trapping which can severely upset device operation on a wide time domain. This talk will review recent research on the electrical reliability and trapping of GaN HEMTs.
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Biography

Jesús A. del Alamo is the Director of the Microsystems Technology Laboratories at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He obtained a Telecommunications Engineer degree from the Polytechnic University of Madrid in 1980 and MS and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1983 and 1985, respectively. From 1985 to 1988 he was with NTT LSI Laboratories in Atsugi (Japan) and since 1988 he has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he is the Donner Professor. His current research interests are centered on nanoelectronics based on compound semiconductors. He is also investigating online laboratories for science and engineering education.

Prof. del Alamo was an NSF Presidential Young Investigator. He is a member of the Royal Spanish Academy of Engineering and Fellow of the IEEE. He currently serves as Editor of IEEE Electron Device Letters. In 2012 he received the Intel Outstanding Researcher Award in Emerging Research Devices, the SRC Technical Excellence Award, and the IEEE EDS Education Award.
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Prof. Muhammad Mustafa Hussain

KAUST

Transformational Electronics: Flexible, Stretchable, Transparent Inorganic Nanoelectronics

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Abstract

Complementary growth of information technology and CMOS electronics has advanced today's digital world. Looking forward we will see unusual applications of them focusing on smart living and sustainable future. Transformation of materials, device architecture to waste materials can serve both purposes. Using conventional CMOS processes, we have introduced the concept of transformational electronics. While retaining high performance, energy efficiency, multi-functionality due to ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density and low-cost, we bring life to formerly dead piece of electronics by integrating web into it. Our objective is to discover new application areas for electronics and web to integrate physical electronics with our daily life through cloud computation, big data, cyber-physical system, ultra-mobile computation and virtual reality. A few examples of such transformational electronics will be shown involving transformation of substrates: flexible-stretchable-transparent nanoelectronic systems. Therefore, in my talk I will focus on our effort to transform traditional bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics into flexible and semi-transparent one. Compared to other demonstrations based on organic electronics, transfer printing, back grinding, or use of ultra-thin flexible silicon – our trench-protect-release-reuse process has complementary advantages from thermal budget, integration density and more main-stream fabrication perspective. We have demonstrated various electronics including metal-oxide-semiconductor devices, energy harvester and such. We view the process holds promise for further expansion and consider the exercise of fabricating various building blocks of electronics opens up opportunity for multi-disciplinary collaborative effort towards integrated systems focusing on sustainable future and smart living.
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Biography

Dr. Muhammad Mustafa Hussain (PhD, University of Texas at Austin, Dec 2005) is an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering in KAUST. Before joining KAUST in Aug 2009, he was Program Manager of Novel Emerging Technology Program at SEMATECH, Austin, Texas. His program was funded by DARPA NEMS, CERA and STEEP programs. A regular panelist of US NSF grants reviewing committees, Dr. Hussain is the Editor-in-Chief of Applied Nanoscience (Springer) and an IEEE Senior Member since February 2010. He has 170 research papers (including 11 invited and 10 cover articles). Prof. Hussain has given 45 invited talks and has offered 3 tutorials in international conferences. He has 15 issued and pending US patent applications. His 4 PhD graduates have landed researcher positions in UC Berkeley, UC Davis and in DOW Chemicals. His students have won numerous research awards including DOW Chemical SISCA Award 2012, World Intellectual Property Indicator 2013. Dr. Hussain is an IEEE Electron Devices Society Distinguished Lecturer and a Fellow of Institute of Nanotechnology, UK.
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Dr. Michael Osterman

University of Maryland

Reliability of Pb-Free Electronics

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Abstract

In 2003, the European Union's Directive on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) mandated the elimination of lead for a large class of electronic products and systems. With a 2006 deadline, the majority of globally produced electronics products shifted from tin-lead to lead-free solders such as tin-silver-copper. At present, RoHS compliant electronics make-up the overwhelming majority of produced electronic equipment and with the revised European Union Restriction of Hazardous Substances and updated European Union End of Life Vehicle directives, an even large group of applications are required to be RoHS compliant this year or by 2019. The shift away from tin-lead has led to substantial research into the replacement materials for tin-lead solder. This work predominately has focused on finding the reliability of tin-silver-copper solder which has become the major replacement solder material.

For lead-free electronics, known risks included tin whisker formation, reduced vibration and shock durability of interconnects, and thermal damage due to elevated assembly temperatures. Further, maturity of assembly process and reliability prediction models was uncertain. Now, 6 years later, this presentation will review the current risks with RoHS complaint electronics, discuss modeling approaches, and provide guidelines for implementing compliant electronics for critical applications.
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Biography

Dr. Michael Osterman (Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park) is a Senior Research Scientist and the director of the CALCE Electronic Products and System Consortium at the University of Maryland. He heads the development of simulation assisted reliability assessment software for CALCE and simulation approaches for estimating time to failure of electronic hardware under test and field conditions. Dr. Osterman has assisted companies with transition to lead-free and in simulation based assessment of electronic assemblies. In addition, he has lead CALCE in the study of tin whiskers since 2002 and has authored many key articles related to the tin whisker phenomenon. Dr. Osterman served as a subject matter expert on phase I and II of the Lead-free Manhattan Project sponsored by Office of Naval Research in conjunction with the Joint Defense Manufacturing Technical Panel (JDMTP). Further, he has written various book chapters and more than seventy articles in the area of electronic products and systems reliability. He is a member of ASME, IEEE, and SMTA.
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Invited Speakers

Travis Anderson

Naval Research Lab

Reliability of GaN HEMTs: Electrical and Radiation-Induced Failure Mechanisms

Douglas DeVoto

NREL

Reliability Challenges in Automotive Power

Marco Nardone

Bowling Green State University

Degradation in Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

C.S. Premachandran

Global Foundries

Through Silicon Via Interconnect Reliability Aspects for 3DIC Integration

Kannan Ramanathan

NREL

Metastabilities and Junction Degradation in CIGS

Dave Shaddock

GE

NanoSpring Bonding Reliability using Indium Solder

Yu-Chen Shen

Sunpower Corporation

Towards Mature Accelerated Tests and Quantitative Predictions of Crystalline Si PV Reliability


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